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Television food advertising targets children

This contribution has been submitted to Webdiary by a student in the Online Journalism unit for the Masters in Media Practice and Masters in Publishing courses at The University of Sydney as part of the unit’s assessment. The topics covered in the pieces awaiting publication are interesting – and diverse. We hope that Webdiarists will enjoy reading them, as well as giving these aspiring journalists plenty of constructive commentary.

Television food advertising targets children
by Darren Boon

There was a time when I had been severely overweight due to my consumption of junk food. Eating junk food seemed normal then under the barrage of junk food ads on television.

Child obesity is hardly surprising nowadays. Half the food ads shown during children’s television timeslots were for “non-core” foods like chocolate and fast food, according to a new study by obesity researchers.

Of the television food ads for “non-core” foods, 54 per cent used cartoon characters and celebrities while 85 per cent used competitions and give-aways.

Researchers from the NSW Centre for Overweight and Obesity and the NSW Centre for Public Health Nutrition arrived at the results after a recent study into the extent of children’s exposure to persuasive marketing efforts within television food ads in Australia.

Bridget Kelly, one of the researchers alerts of a hidden danger. “The frequency of the use of these persuasive marketing techniques was highest during the most popular TV programs with children.” The study, the first of its kind, examines the use of cartoon characters and celebrities, competitions and give-aways to push products on television.

Kelly reckons that these methods “capture children and adolescents attention, build brand loyalty and ultimately affect children’s desire” for “non-core” foods.

“Food marketing has been linked with affecting children’s food preferences, their food purchases, and ultimately their food consumption,” Kelly said. “There have been five major reviews that have all shown these findings, so we think the evidence is fairly clear that food marketing effects children’s diets and therefore risk of obesity.” Kylie Butler from the Australian Medical Association (AMA) and Kelly state that a quarter of Australian children and adolescents are either overweight or obese. Butler highlighted a study from the Better Health Channel which indicates 65 per cent of young Australians are at risk of becoming overweight or obese by 2020.

“Restricting junk food advertising on TV would be a good start – limiting both the volume of ads and the use of persuasive techniques clearly targeted to children,” Lesley King, another researcher said. “Broadcasters could take a social responsibility perspective and seriously limit junk food advertising.”

However, in the Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA) draft Children’s Televisions Standards 2008, ACMA had indicated no intention in recommending general restrictions for food and beverage television advertising during children’s viewing times. ACMA had concluded that there was no sufficient consensus on the impact of the banning of junk food advertising on obesity levels.

Kelly disagrees. “I feel that ACMA has side stepped the issue of food marketing to children. The level of evidence required to indicate a causal relationship between advertising and obesity is unlikely to be available,” Kelly said. “We need to consider on the precautionary principle and act on the reasonable evidence available that advertising affects children’s diets and weight.” Kelly will submit the research to ACMA. She hopes that the research will “encourage a move towards advertising restrictions during children’s peak viewing times”.

The study was conducted over two one-week periods in May 2006 and 2007. 25.5 per cent out of a total of 20,201 advertisements were for food with “non-core” foods accounting for half the food ads. Companies included Cadburys, McDonalds, KFC, Dominos, and Pizza Hut.


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Absolutely rubbish

Thanks Darren for bringing such a hot topic to us. When I was in New Zealand my flatmate had a part time in KFC. Now I would like to tell everyone how disgusting junk food is:

  1. 1. They don’t use liquid oil at all, they use solid oil cubes for fried chicken and chips
  2. 2. Don’t eat potato gravy in KFC; the cooking process is extremely disgusting…
  3. 3. In Burger King (Hungry Jacks in Australia), they offer refill service for customs, those beverage are made from powder, first they mix those powders with water and then charge air into it.

In my opinion, junk food is absolutely rubbish for us. Everyone has to take the responsibility to stop junk food: government, ads industry, education system, the whole society has to step up and pull the trigger.

Advertising junk food

Hi, Darren, I enjoy reading your article. I agree with the point that junk food advertising should be limited, especially on children’s viewing time. And I think the advertising industry should take the social responsibility.

When I was in China, I always saw the McDonalds advertising which persuade children to eat junk food. The advertising says, look, these are our newest soft toys, come and buy a McDonalds Happy meal, you can get them! When I was young, I used to eat junk food to collect the soft toys. Although my parents told me junk food are rubbish, I couldn’t stop eating them because I like the toys they promoted in advertising.

In China, when you walk into a McDonalds or KFC, you will find that children are the most important consumers. Also these companies target teenagers. If you are a school student, you can use your student ID to buy a discount card for McDonalds or KFC. Also these junk food canteens are always open near schools. Children can easily buy there after school.

In my opinion, I think parents and school teachers are the most important people to give children food knowledge. And limiting junk food advertisings is necessary.

I'm in awe

You are obviously WonderWoman, Kathy Farrelly.

I'm pleased that you don't conform to the "2 eggs a week" proscription.

I guess I'm healthy, in that I haven't had a day off "sick" in...oh, forever. I think it was about 1986.

But, I see that many young women have a harder row to hoe than I ever did, and, while I don't endorse - and may condemn - their choices, I can feel for their human weakness.

You don't. Ok. We are all different, no?

Definitely not Wonder Woman.

No, definitely not Wonder Woman F. Kendall! I am just a stickler for good nutrition. I grew up in a household where it was considered that a cup of tea and a couple of milk arrowroot biscuits was an adequate breakfast. My parents didn't know any better back then. Of course today it is much different, and now they eat a healthy breakfast.

I would wager that most Australians now know what constitutes a nutritious and balanced meal. Do you know that many children still go to school in the morning without eating breakfast? How hard is it to give your child a piece of fruit and some cheese or yoghurt for breakfast?

My sister-in-law works full-time (SHE is Wonder Woman) travels 40 kilometres to and from work every day, and still puts a cooked meal on the table every night. She lives in a large country town about 3 hours away. Every second weekend she drives to Perth to visit her 81 year old Mum loaded up with cooked meals that she has frozen over the two weeks.

Where there is a will there is a way, I say.

It is so easy to make a big pot of spaghetti bolognaise sauce and freeze portions for future meals. Many things freeze well; how hard is it to make a bit extra and put it away for days when you may have little time or energy?

I have a friend who uses a slow cooker so that when she arrives home from work the meal is ready.

One does not even have to cook to have a nutritious meal. The local fresh fruit and veg shop sells wonderful fresh salads arranged attractively on a tray. Egg, beetroot ,carrot, cheese, lettuce etc.... I make all my own salads, but these salads are good nutritious alternatives for busy people short on time.

I am afraid that I can't feel sorry for people who feed their kids crap every day.

Responsible parenting entails providing good nutritious and balanced meals for your children. (As I pointed out, these meals need not take hours to prepare either.) The reason that more children are developing diabetes and becoming obese is quite obviously due to poor diet and lack of exercise. Sometimes the effects of a poor diet are not immediately evident.


I am certainly not the perfect mother, F. Kendall. My house often looks like a bomb has hit it. In fact, I am actually a terrible housewife. I see people like my sister-in-law calm, cool and organized (I am the opposite, sadly) and I think wow, if only I could be like that.

I always tell people that I was a better Administration Manager than I am a mother. They look at me in disbelief. But it's true. It’s not for lack of trying, though. Others just have that knack, I don't. I'm a realist, and I don't kid myself.

Mind you, no matter what the house may look like, my kids are growing up healthy, and they too, like hubby and myself (and you), rarely get sick.

I can't remember the last time I had a cold.

Okay, I'll get off my soapbox now!

Everything starts at home

In spite of being a junk food lover, I think this issue is as or even more important for people’s health than the non smoking one. Because we are talking about the nutritional habits of kids, that is to say, human beings who are just in the process of learning what is good or wrong, with whom is easier to take actions in order to change their consumption behavior, rather than with adults which is, not an impossible, but a hardest task.

However, I reckon that this is not the ads’ fault, even though as Julia said, a better regulation of junk food commercials as in Sweden definitely can help, the best and most important way to do it is through the parents' guidance. It all depends on how parents raise their kids. For instance, due to the variety of the Peruvian cuisine, people have been used to eat well since childhood. Most of us have between three or two balanced meals per day. By it, I don’t mean having cornflakes for breakfast or just a sandwich for lunch. I am talking about having fresh fruit juice, a cup of milk or coffee, bread, ham, among others, as our first meal of the day. In the case of lunch, we could have an entrée and rice with some stew, as the basic plate, and repeat the same at night or maybe something lighter.

I guess that due to the fact that the boom of “junk food” in Lima, Peru arrived around the 90’s, we didn’t have it as an issue. But nowadays, it is. However, as parents have been raised with healthy eating habits, they are trying to pass them on to their kids. Yes, it is tough because of all these companies’ aggressive marketing but they should try to leave junk food as a weekend treat.

Everything starts at home so let’s give a good education to our children in all sense.

Diet and the working mum

Kathy Farrelly, this mother, like many others, is time poor, and I am sympathetic to that - tho' not to her solution. I wouldn't call her "educated" - just not uneducated....there is a difference. I doubt that she has the time to get well informed. Work 9-5; support the boys' after hours activities, plus housework, laundry etc...Coming from the era where we, as housewives, felt ourselves to be busy, although unemployed, I am in awe of the demands and stresses on working mothers...perhaps you are one.

The boys have shown me, via Choice, that cocopops have less sugar than say Nutrigrain, which purports to be healthy, but isn't.

But then, I am not in a position to change their diet: they are clients, not friends, so my input is limited. And, as I said, the results so far have been ok - they are outstanding boys.

I eat no junk food, ever.... just not interested. Tinned salmon, tuna and sardines, (as well as the supposed fresh), but no other product. Lerv simple clean food, particularly if I can buy it both fresh and ripe ...(now, that's a challenge). Lerv my wine. Also lerv milk, to which I'm addicted, and of which I drink 6 - 8 litres a week: which, I have no doubt the food police would criticise. Particularly as I adore biodynamic full cream - the milky equivalent of Moet, which my daughter has just bought me a bottle of. Oh, the rewards of parenthood.

Vital signs normal to date. So far, so good. I ignore the "experts" who so continuously have made so many erroneous pronouncements.

It's not always easy but you must make time for nutritious meals

The time poor stuff just doesn't wash with me when it comes to something as important as nutrition, F. Kendall. Especially when children are involved. Establish good eating habits when kids are young and they will carry them through to adulthood. Of course, the reverse is also true.

Now, the fact that a McDonalds burger is not healthy is a "no brainer"

Even when my kids go to birthday parties they never drink soft drink. We don't drink it at home. You don't miss what you never have ('course, on the other hand we DO drink a bit of wine, ha!).

One can certainly make many a nutritious meal involving pasta or rice that really does not take too long to prepare.

Time management is the key.

Even years ago when I was working up to 55 hours a week, I still exercised for an hour a day and cooked as well.

It's fortunate too, that I love salads. Every morning I make myself a salad (no dressing): snow pea sprouts, radishes, red capsicum, cucumber and spring onion to accompany my poached eggs and grilled tomatoes on toast. The bread is homemade, and I use no spread on my toast.

Oh I almost forgot. Chillies! I grill very hot chillies chop them up, drizzle a little olive oil over them and then whack 'em on my poached eggs.

People think I'm weird when they find out I eat salad and chillies for breakfast! I may be weird, but I'm healthy.

The Kathy Farrelly Children

Can ye no see it now? The wee bairns in the Farrelly household reeling around pissed to the moral imperative of not drinking soft drink? The kirk would be proud.

Attending other wee bairns’ kalies wi' no more than a hip flask to sustain body an' soul?

Nae doobt they never miss what they dinna have but I wonder whether they ever had a spirtle.

There's nae salat i' the Heilands girlie: just beef lamb an' usqi var. Oh, an bairns o' course. And one hell of a lot of curry houses that all do takeaway.


Che? Perhaps I can get Jenny to translate.

I get this feeling that Malcolm is under the impression that I am (in his words) a "pisspot". Heaven forbid!


Sorry Kathy, I could not translate that little lot if I tried. Maybe the other Scot here could. As for Che I thought you were referring to my son, it's his middle name - yes think Argentina, think Cuba. Mind you, I had no say in it, no say in it at all. 

As for cooking good tucker, we have taken to having a cook up each week and freezing it -  a very good idea for a working mum to adopt as you suggest.  I think a lot of people simply do not think about it. Just see what people have in the supermarket trolley. I think the diversity into all that tinned, jarred and packaged food has been a bad thing. It has tried to suggest that cooking can be made simple and easy by using premade sauces and all sorts of stuff and yet it is absolutely loaded with salt, fats and sugars - yes, loaded is the only word for it.

So to make a veggie curry for example we never buy those asian curry jars of stuff any more - we just stick with the good old Keen's and spices. I guess 99.9% of the stuff in the supermarket I would now never buy. For a while I did use some of that stuff, being a lazy cook, but never again.

Salt - fat - sugar

Salt , fat and sugar.

The above is what junk food is all about and big time. The above food items are the most addictive to humans and apparently many animals. Taken in excess they can destroy a naturally healthy appetite.

The food industry know this well.

Sadly, the quality of the fats they put in most manufactured food is low grade crap; especially the junk they put in biscuits and cakes.

Sugar is cheap and so is salt, and the punters keep coming back for more.

The food industry know this well.

Parents are the ones who have to show the way, but many parents are ill-equipped with food knowledge. Their children are the victims.

Can't stop advertising in a free society.

The food industry know this well.

So looks like mum and dad will have to get up to speed on the food thing wise their kiddies will die young.

Sadly, fast food is a convenient compromise for busy parents, or they allow it to be, but good healthy food can be prepared pretty quickly. My young bloke used to prepare his own tucker. Never saw him eat junk but he made great stir fries and other weird concoctions from real food.

Maybe if cooking became a family activity then all would benefit. Better diet, better family communication, and cheaper food. But usually it is up to mum and mum is stuffed after working full or part time, picking up the kids and doing a load of washing and and and...

The more food is handled the more expensive it becomes. Eating healthy can be a lot cheaper than eating junk.

In fact, two of the best foods pound for pound, dollar for dollar, are baked beans and sardines (which for this old albatross go nicely with a wee bit of chopped up onion and brown vinegar, which is also very good for you).

I've never had a Big Mac and to be honest the (fatty) smell of McDonalds restaurants is usually quite repulsive to me. Also the bread rolls used in fast food joints are usually spiked with sugar so they cook quicker.

Kath well done old girl ;-) if all parents took an interest in diet and exercise our national health bill would be reduced dramatically.

With food like anything else the golden mean applies.

Of course when it comes to booze all bets are under the table.

Adults, don't give in

I was not recommending a ban on advertising junk food, Kathy Farrelly, but highlighting the difference in approach to these issues.

One could substitute "adults" for "parents" in some of your sentences, and make the same arguments for cigarette advertising, surely?

I know a lovely, not uneducated, woman with 3 sons from 13 - 20, who have a junk food EVERY night of the week ... (and coco pops for breakfast). The boys are far from obese, very good at sport, and have excelled academically.....but, I don't like their long term health outlook. I hope that they prove me wrong.

She is a loving, devoted mother: she just doesn't seem to know that she should buy food, not products.

Coco poops, s**t for breakfast.

"... she just doesn't seem to know that she should buy food, not products."

Sorry F. Kendall, just don't buy it.

There is no excuse for (educated) parents/adults to be providing kids with junk food every night of the week.

I think it's more of a case of manipulation by those boys.The mother has given in to their demands.

Coco pops for breakfast!

Sheesh, who could ever think that feeding their kids that crap would constitute a healthy breakfast.

When I was 20 (many a long year ago), I decided then, that to lead a healthy lifestyle it was necessary to eat a healthy breakfast, exercise and to ingest minimal amounts of junk food. I still adhere to that maxim. I exercise for an hour a day, never miss breakfast, and rarely eat junk food.

As a result I have low cholesterol and normal blood pressure.

There is one area in which I do fall down, however. I am as you know, rather partial to a few glasses of wine.

Oh, well, ya can't win 'em all!

It's not the junk food adv's fault

I agree junk food advs have an impact on the increase number of overweight kids. But who's to take the responsibility for kids' health? I don't think these advs should take the whole because they don't do anything wrong.

Also these advs do not target kids only but adults. Removing them is to severely damage their business, which are contributing to our economy I have to say.

I do think the good start, instead of giving a ban to the advs, should be to conduct a research on analog components which the junk food can be made of.

Ian M (Ed): Memo to the commenter. Please in future use your own, correct name as set out in How to Comment in About Webdiary at the top of the Home Page.

Junk food advertising and smoking

We accept anti-smoking advertising as undoubtedly a good thing, but  each time during the previous government that the question of banning junk food advertising at children's viewing time came up, the health minister, Tony Abbott, derided the idea as belonging to a "nanny state".

So, it seems that a nanny is suitable for adults, but not for children.

Parents , don't give in.

Banning junk food advertising at children's viewing time!


It's the parents who should be the regulators here.

My kids, as a treat, have chicken and chips once a fortnight (not Mum and Dad, though).

We make our own home made pizzas which the kids love. I make the sauce and the dough, hubby gets out his rolling pin makes the pizzas and cooks them. Bellisimo!

Parents have to stop letting kids call the shots here.

My 12 year old daughter had her first McDonald's burger ever, a few weeks ago. She stayed at a friends overnight and that was what they had for dinner (sighs).


I realised this year, Darren, that it is not just the fat content of these fast foods that is a problem and it is not only fast foods that one has to be wary of in terms of heart disease risk.

I was never one for reading labels but after attending classes at the local hospital for a family member recovering from heart surgery I got quite a few surprises.

Fast foods and many pre-packaged foods are in fact loaded with not only the bad fats, but also salt which helps to harden the arteries, leading to small cracks and scratches as peoples' arteries age, to which then clings the bad cholesterol fuelled by the saturated fats in the diet. At these weak points the cholesterol builds in clumps which can finally completely block an artery resulting in heart or stroke.

In these classes we were told the salt cellar has to go completely and that we must read the salt content of any package, tinned or bottled food and not buy anything that had more than 210mgs of salt per 100grams. We were told there is enough salt in one slice of bread to meet the daily need. Well, did I get a shock when I started shopping for goods that did not exceed those 210 mgs. Virtually every food has more so I have had to settle for around 300-350 mgs and be careful how much is used.

Read the label on the bottled pasta sauces, on full grain mustard, on tartare sauces and similar, on curry pastes in the Asian section, on tins of soup (packet soup is the worst) and what you find is that salt content can be over 1000 mgs in many instances and if not, then up around the 700-800. Some are well close to 2000mgs. So if you buy mustards then think very carefully about much you slather on the steak. Some foods such as nuts are actually pre salted. They need to be avoided.

Then we were told to read the saturated fat content and to go for the low saturated fat margarines and all other pre-packaged food. This is easier as there is usually a product that is quite low, while a similar one can be much higher without any real difference in the product otherwise.

So now I find that to avoid the salt in particular it means I avoid the vast majority of pre-packaged foods, and just use small amounts of such things as mustard.

We think that we cannot do without salt but the fact is that the more you eat the more you add, because the salt taste is actually in the saliva. The more salt you eat, the saltier the saliva, so the more you add to get the taste. Once you cut out the salt the salt content of saliva falls, and gradually you realise that you are no longer wanting to add salt at all. My only exception is on an egg, of which we are told not to eat more than two per week.

In following the regime I lost without even trying 12kgs, and my husband the same, in the past year.

The other thing is exercise. To reduce the risk of heart disease they told us you should get at least 40 minutes of good brisk walking or other exercise in for about five days of each week. We do that and feel so much better, and it lowers blood pressure as well.

So with so many products on the supermarket shelves we really need to start educating our kids to read labels and know that it is more than just fast foods that are the problem.

Of course the other big issue in heart disease is smoking and family history. I do not know how those children who are sperm donated kids can be expected to know their family history.

It is an illusion to think that if your blood pressure is good, and your cholesterol is only around 4 or 5 and the diet is good, that there is no risk. With family history the risk is there an cholesterol has to be reduced to much less than 5. Total of 3 with bad cholesterol no more than 2 is now seen as what is required.

So salt and saturated fats and smoking - the three S killers.

Add to that lack of exercise, high blood pressure and family history - watch out.

One link in the puzzle

Advertising is one of the links in the big puzzle, but it makes a good start though.  Of course there is a need for increased physical activity to really combat obesity. 

That’s a good story.

That’s a good story. The quotes from professional researchers (Bridget Kelly & Lesley King) are strong evidences to persuade readers.

I agree with Julia Stolzenberg’s comment above, limitation on junk food advertising is only one approach to prevent child obesity. But there are big poster ads near schools, shopping centres and everywhere kids are most likely to visit. Why not take a active action? Encouraging physical exercise at schools will be more effective for their health.

Fellow student's comment

Hi Darren, this is a very relevant topic which is well-researched and looked at from different angles. It would have added some more value if there had been links to sources such as the NSW Centre for Overweight and Obesity, ACMA or the “new study by obesity researchers”. Nonetheless, I find the article on the debate around the suggested junk food ad ban on children’s TV extremely interesting.

The advertising industry has long since been targeting children as consumers and (future) markets because of their enormous direct and indirect (their ability on persuading parents what to buy) purchasing power. However, what children don’t have is the ability to critically engage with and comprehend advertising strategies and the purpose of commercials. So it certainly would be a good idea to follow the example of other countries, such as Sweden, where junk food ads have been banned from children’s TV programmes since 1991.

However, I think that tackling children’s unhealthy eating habits needs a more multi-faceted approach. What about junk food ads in children’s magazines? Or on the Internet? According to the Children’s Food Campaign in the UK kids are being stalked in cyberspace by junk food manufacturers that use Internet games to sell their products. What about games and quizzes on food and drink packaging? Children are targeted everywhere, whether at home, in the supermarket or in cyberspace. Surely, it is impossible to fully protect children from all of these influences - after all, we can’t lock our kids up in their rooms all the time and we shouldn’t have to. If parents acted as examples by providing fresh and healthy food at home, by making their children aware of the purpose of commercial advertising, and by taking exercise instead of lazing around, childhood obesity and related diseases wouldn’t be as much of an issue. After all, it should be the parents who children spend their spare time with, not the media.

Junk food advertising threatens children's health

I think there are some really good points here. You give the different opinion that whether there are apparent links between advertisement and children’s love on junk foods. Television advertisement will affect children’s preferences and purchase "demand" on foods and beverages, and will also impact their future consumption habits. Moreover, ads may impact their parents’ consumptive habits.

In relation to this topic, at present Chinese children and adolescents have increasing diabetes cases. The main reason is the sharp rise of obese children (an annual rate of 8% growth). Western countries control broadcasting time and content of junk food ads to reduce the misguidance. In China, the lack of rules in food industry is the number one issue. Therefore the fundamental way of solving junk food problem is the food legislation. Limit the advertisement broadcast is a supplementary measure.

Something could be promoted: The article does not contain any links to other information that might be helpful to the reader. It would be better to hyperlink some key words such as “the results after a recent study” to the exact statistics to prove your argument.

Richard: Yun Lou, could you please type your comments directly into the box instead of pasting from other software? This has lead to formatting conflicts with your posts.

Advertising, obesity, diabetes

I think there are some really good points here. You give the different opinions about whether there are apparent links between advertisement and children’s love on junk foods. Television advertisement will affect children’s preferences and purchase "demand" on foods and beverages, and will also impact their future consumption habits. Moreover, ads may impact their parents’ consumption habits.

In relation to this topic, at present Chinese children and adolescents have increasing diabetes cases. The main reason is the sharp rise of obese children (an annual rate of 8% growth). Western countries may through control broadcasting time and content of junk food ads to reduce the misguidance. In China, the lack of rules in food industry is the number one issue. Therefore the fundamental way of solving junk food problem is the food legislation. Limiting the advertisement broadcast is a supplementary measure.

Something could be promoted: The article does not contain any links to other information that might be helpful to the reader. It would be better to hyperlink some key words such as “the results after a recent study” to the exact statistics to prove your argument.

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