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Anti-terrorism laws - links update #14

By Jozef Imrich
Created 10/11/2005 - 02:30

Dramatic proof that laws are adequate and the rest is just atmospherics
SMH, November 9, 2005
If the Prime Minister thinks he has a green light on anti-terrorism, he's wrong, writes Peter Hartcher.
JOHN Howard did not utter the words "I have been vindicated", but it was the subtext of his press conference yesterday. And, with news of the arrest of 16 suspected terrorists, he has been vindicated on two important points. - http://smh.com.au/news/opinion/dramatic-proof-that-laws-are-adequate-and-the-rest-is-justatmospherics/2005/11/08/1131407632703.html [1]

Keelty says raids a group effort
ABC, 7.30 Report, Broadcast: 08/11/2005 Reporter: Kerry O'Brien
KERRY O'BRIEN: I am sure not, but does it demonstrate that current powers are adequate?
MICK KEELTY: Well, I think they are and I think the issue about the proposed bill was an issue of transparency and I commend transparency when we've got such difficult issues to work through with the community.- http://www.abc.net.au/7.30/content/2005/s1500746.htm [2]

Commissioner feared media tipped off suspects
ABC Online, 9 Nov 2005
"I wondered whether ... the alleged activities of the people involved would continue, whether we would be confronted with another sort of problem," he said.
"Certainly it is a lesson we have learnt in terms of the work we have done offshore, outside of Australia.
"If I can take it away from this court case for the moment - and that is we know that people offshore do examine what happens in the media, do examine what happens in court." - http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200511/s1500806.htm [3]

Man in Australian raids allegedly seeking revenge for Iraq
Radio New Zealand, Posted at 7:37pm on 8 Nov 2005
A Melbourne court has been told a man allegedly connected to an Australian terrorist group wanted to seek revenge for actions in Iraq. - http://www.radionz.co.nz/news/bulletins/radionz/200511081937/10704652a> [4]

PM denies raids anti-Muslim
ABC Online, 9 Nov 2005
Prime Minister John Howard says the arrests of suspected terrorists in Sydney and Melbourne yesterday were not anti-Muslim.
Mr Howard has called for Australian Muslims to reject terrorism after yesterday's arrests. - http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200511/s1500786.htm [5]


Another house raided in Sydney
ABC Online, 9 Nov 2005
Police have continued their anti-terrorism action overnight, raiding a house at Revesby in Sydney's south-west. - http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200511/s1500762.htm [6]

Aussies schooled by al-Qa'ida
The Australia, November 09, 2005, Sally Neighbour:
IN early 2001, a group of young Muslim firebrands from the Preston mosque gathered at the Islamic Information and Support Centre, a favourite meeting spot of radical Islamists in Melbourne.
One of them was a young Australian named Shane Kent, a 24-year-old who had converted to Islam and was known at the mosque by his adopted Muslim name, Yasin. He is one of the men arrested in Melbourne in yesterday's counter-terrorism raids and now accused of being part of a full-blown terrorist plot in Australia. - http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,5744,17186587%255E7583,00.html [7]

Spotting the terrorism suspects
The Australian, By Sally Neighbour 4 Nov 2005
It was an observant lawyer going about his business in Collins Street Melbourne who noticed something that struck him as odd - a man filming the Australian Stock Exchange building with a small home video camera. The suspicious lawyer rang the Government's anti-terrorism hotline and gave a detailed description of the amateur cameraman and his car. [Sally Neighbour is the author of In The Shadow of the Swords: How Islamic Terrorists Declared War on Australia [8]]

Critics lose face, from head to toe
The Australian, November 09, 2005, Matt Price
OODLES and oodles of egg, yet nary a crumb of humble pie.
You'll recall that when John Howard demanded an urgent, if peculiar amendment to the criminal code last week to counter a potential but unnamed terror threat, the Prime Minister was almost knocked flat by the corresponding sonic boom of cynicism. - http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,5744,17186668%255E12854,00.html [9]

Blizzard of chatter set alarms ringing
The Australian, November 09, 2005 Cameron Stewart and Natalie O'Brien
IT was a sudden explosion of intercepted "chatter" early last week that rang the alarm inside the nation's spy and police network.
After 18 months of surveillance, investigators were convinced the group was planning an attack and the Australian Federal Police was close to gathering the final pieces of evidence against them. - http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,5744,17186655%255E601,00.html [10]

In pictures: Australia raids
BBC News, UK - 8 November 2005
Australian police have carried out raids in Sydney and Melbourne to foil what they called a planned terror attack. About 500 officers took part in the raids early on Tuesday, in the country's largest ever counter-terrorism operation. - http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_pictures/4416898.stm [11]

Seventeen arrests in Australian terror swoop
Channel 4 News, UK - 8 November 2005
Australian police have arrested 17 people on charges of planning a terrorist attack and committing to "violent jihad in Australia". Among those arrested was an outspoken Muslim cleric who allegedly supports Osama bin Laden. - http://www.channel4.com/news/content/news-storypage.jsp?id=2062691 [12]

More Aussie terror raids after 17 seized
The Standard, China, 09 Nov 2005,
Australian police launched fresh raids after officials said they have foiled a "catastrophic act of terrorism" inspired by a radical Islamic cleric with the arrest of 17 suspects earlier in the day. - http://www.thestandard.com.hk/news_detail.asp?pp_cat=17&art_id=5243&sid=5385631&con_type=1 [13]

No Commonwealth Games link in terror raids
ABC Sport online, 8 Nov 2005
Victoria's Police Commissioner Christine Nixon says raids on terrorist suspects overnight have nothing to do with any threat to next year's Commonwealth Games. - http://www.abc.net.au/sport/content/200511/s1500078.htm [14]

Raid prevented 'catastrophe': Scully
Sydney Morning Herald - 8 November 2005
Police prevented a "catastrophic act of terrorism" by raiding homes in Sydney and Melbourne and arresting 17 suspects, NSW Police Minister Carl  Scully said today. -http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/raid-prevented-catastrophe-scully/2005/11/08/1131407633518.html [15]

Raid shooting man 'critical'
Sydney Morning Herald - 8 November 2005
A man shot and critically wounded by police in Sydney's west today is one of several people arrested in a series of anti-terrorist raids across the city, police say. - http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/raid-shooting-man-critical/2005/11/08/1131212036255.html [16]

MP calls for action on chemical stockpiles
The Age - 8 November 2005
The seizure of chemicals in today's counter-terrorism raids highlights a dangerous lack of police information on people buying materials that could be used in an attack, a Government MP says. - http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/mp-calls-for-action-on-chemical-stockpiles/2005/11/08/1131407619836.html [17]

Terror raids: It's now a question of trust
Sydney Morning Herald - 8 November 2005
This morning's sweeping anti-terror raids in the suburbs of Sydney and Melbourne are reassuring, in that they demonstrate -- or so we must hope -- the effectiveness of our police and intelligence agencies. Yes, they were assisted, says the federal government, by the amendments passed last week by parliament, but they do not -- yet -- make the case for the more draconian changes ahead. - http://blogs.smh.com.au/thecontrarian/archives/2005/11/terror_raids_it.html [18]

Costello Interview with Catherine McGrath,
ABC, AM Programme [08/11/2005]
MCGRATH:Treasurer what about the timing though? I mean it is a fact that these arrests have happened but it is also a fact that industrial relations legislation is being discussed in Parliament. Ever since the Prime Minister had that press conference last week there has been very little public attention being able to be put on that. I mean what about the timing, what can you say about the timing? TREASURER:Well I think there has been a lot of attention on industrial relations. There has been a huge advertising campaigns. Any suggestion… -

Blog Views

Australia says major terror attack foiled as Muslim cleric charged
Australian police said they foiled a "large-scale terrorist attack" and charged a radical Islamic cleric with leading a terrorist group after raids in which a suspected militant was shot and wounded and 15 others arrested. - http://fu2rman.blogspot.com/2005/11/one-step-forward.html

Terrorism arrests - Sydney and Melbourne
Crapping on about whatever I feel like
So, only a few days after Parliament passed urgent changes to Australia's anti-terrorism laws, we have our first arrests. - http://craponwhatever.blogspot.com/2005/11/terrorism-arrests-sydney-and-melbourne.html [20]

Laughing at the Sydney Morning Herald the Morning After
Crooked in Oz
Yesterday I came across an item in the Sydney Morning Herald; it was about the unlikelihood of arrests being made as a result of parts of the new anti-terrorism bill being rushed through parliament to thwart a specific terrorist threat in Australia. I thought the story in the Herald was so ridiculous I passed it over, choosing to blog about something else instead. -http://crookedinoz.blogspot.com/2005/11/laughing-at-sydney-morning-herald.html [21]

Australian Terrorist Plot Foiled
Knickerbocker News
Tuesday morning, at 2:30 am, 15 people were arrested in the planning of a terrorist attack meant to do much damage to Australia, but no specific target was released to the public. When 400 police officers set out to search for these men, they found 9 of them in Melbourne and 6 of them in Sydney.  - http://knickerbockernews.blogspot.com/2005/11/australian-terrorist-plot-foiled.html [22]

In the spirit of multicultural harmony I'd j...
Silent Running
Maybe I won't get blown up walking through Flinders St Railway Station tomorrow on my way to work after all. - http://silentrunning.tv/?p=254 [23]

Another Win For Our War On Terrorism
Peat Bog
One of the problems with fighting a war like the war we are currently engaged is that it is hard to tell if you are winning. If you are losing, everybody knows it because bombs are going off everywhere. If you are winning, it simply means the peace is being kept and it's hard to trumpet it up so that anybody pays attention. - http://peatbog.net/2005/11/07/another-win-for-our-war-on-terrorism/ [24]

This is a question I ask myself a lot of late. ...
This is a question I ask myself a lot of late. In a time of a mandated Senate - with laws pushed through at a whim. Laws that change a very way of life in Australia, with no 'sunset' clauses to change them back again - it would seem. How did we as a democratic society find ourselves in this collective situation. On board this Express Train fast-tracked to a place that feels less and less like a free, easy-going, fair, community minded country. And more and more like a self interested, debt-laden, inhumane class-divided chasm, from which our future generations will be expected to flourish?! - http://who-voted-for-howard.blogspot.com/2005/11/this-is-question-i-ask-myself-lot-of.html [25]


Five Guantanamo detainees charged
BBC News, UK - 8 November 2005
Five prisoners held at the US military prison at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, have been charged with crimes including murder and will face military trials. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4416682.stm [26]

No freedom for Hicks as Supreme Court considers legal issues
ABC Online, Australia - 8 November 2005
t looks as if there may be yet another delay in the trial of Australian terrorist suspect, David Hicks, who's been detained by the United States in Cuba for almost four years without trial. - http://www.abc.net.au/worldtoday/content/2005/s1500416.htm [27]


Peace Offensive Needed To Curb Terrorism
People's Democracy - Nov 6, 2005
The serial blasts of last week killing 61 innocent civilians and grievously injuring hundreds of others who were shopping in crowded Delhi markets on the eve of Diwali and Id have been condemned by one and all. Despite the severity of the gruesome act, the terrorists have not been able to cow down the citizens of Delhi who did not panic, refused to give in to any unwanted provocation and went about their business, though subdued, in a normal way. - http://pd.cpim.org/2005/1106/11062005_edit.htm [28]

International terrorism law links from the Parliament of Australia Parliamentary Library [29]

2001 - almost up to date


Guidelines on human rights and the fight against terrorism, July 2002 [36]


Some good websites for keeping up to date include:

  • Statewatch [37]
    Information and analysis of European laws on terrorism
  • Timeline of EU actions after 11 September [38] (on the EU official website) - has links to all relevant documents.
  • European Commission. Justice and Home Affairs Council page on terrorism [39] (includes documents, press releases and a couple of press articles)
  • Terrorism: the European Union's Position [40]
    Detailed information from the Delegation of the European Commission to the United States, with links to key documents
  • List of terrorist organisations [41] with which financial dealings are restricted by member states

Public Safety Bill 2002 [42] (Bill C-55) introduced to replace Bill C-42 introduced on 22 November 2001, which was withdrawn after significant criticism

2001 November 28
Aeronautics Amendment Bill [43] (Bill C-44) introduced and received Royal Assent on 18 December 2001. Becomes Act no. 38 of 2001 [44]. Allows Canadian air carriers to provide approved passenger information to approved countries.

November 22
The federal government's second anti-terrorism bill, the Public Safety Act [45], Bill C-42, was introduced and debated at second reading on December 3, 2001. This bill enacts the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention Implementation Act, and allows Cabinet ministers to respond immediately to terrorist threats

October 15
Anti-terrorism Bill
( Bill no. C-36. Introduced 15th October 2001 by Hon. Anne McLellan, Minister of Justice and Attorney General). It amends the Criminal Code, the Official Secrets Act, the Canada Evidence Act, the Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) Act and other acts, and enacts measures respecting the registration of charities, in order to combat terrorism.

The text of the Bill may be found on the Parliament site [46] and on the University of Toronto Law Library website [47] which also has extensive links to related Canadian and overseas resources. The bill became act number 41 of 2001 [48] (186 pages long)

Parliamentary debates and information about the remaining stages of the Bill may be found in the Hansard index [49] under the heading: "Anti-terrorism Bill (C-36)". Analysis of the Bill [50] by the Canadian Parliamentary Library [available within Parliament only]

The Bill was referred to the Standing Committee on Justice and Human Rights [51]. Its Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence [52] contain discussion of the Bill. ( Note loading of evidence appears to take several days). The Report of the Committee [53] was tabled on 22 November 2001

  • Highlights of the Bill [54] from the Dept of Justice.
  • Checks and Balances Under the Proposed Anti-Terrorism Act
    [55]Fact sheet from the Dept of Justice
  • Canadian Center for Public Publicy Alternatives (CCPA) analysis of Bill C-36 - An Act to Combat Terrorism [56]
  • Protecting human rights and providing security: Amnesty International's comments with respect to Bill C-36 [57]

September 18
House of Commons [58] devotes much of the day to the topic of Anti-Terrorism Legislation

March 15
Charities Registration (Security Information) Bill (C-16), introduced on 15 March 2001 by the Solicitor General of Canada, the Hon. Lawrence MacAulay. The Bill aims to prevent organisations which support terrorist activities from obtaining or continuing to have registered charity status under the Income Tax Act.

  • Text and Legislative Summary [59] ; Referred to the Standing Committee on Justice and Human Rights [60] ; Now incorporated in the Anti-Terrorism Bill (C-36) Part 6 [61] (see above).

Other Canadian Information
  • Carter and Associates (Law Firm) [62]
    This site provides information, articles and resource materials dealing with the newly passed anti-terrorist and associated legislation in Canada
  • List of banned terrorist organisations in Canada [63] (Dept of the Solicitor General)

Text of Bill (introduced 25 March 2002) and report of the Parliamentary Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade Committee [64]
  • Text of Act [65] (passed 10 October 2002)
  • Comment and analysis
    • ARENA (Action, Research & Education Network of Aotearoa) [66]
    • Bills Digest [67] (NZ Parliamentary Library. BD no. 883)
    • Peace Movement Aotearoa [68]
  • Counter-terrorism Bill 2002 (introduced 17 December 2002 and passed 22 October 2003). Text of Act not available
    • Bills Digest [69]
    • New Zealand's Anti-Terrorism Campaign: Balancing Civil Liberties, National Security, and International Responsibilities [70] (John E Smith)
      Detailed examination of anti-terrorism legislation with historical perspective and international comparisons (91 pages)

    Terrorism Bill 2005 [71], introduced 12 October, deals with incitement, strengthens powers of various agencies and redefines terrorism

    • Parliamentary Library research paper [72]

    Prevention of Terrorism Act 2005 [73]enacted after long debate. Aims to replace the Part 4 powers in the Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001 with a new scheme of Control Orders.

    • Parliamentary Committee report [74]
    • Parliamentary Library research paper [75]


    • 2001 December 14
      Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001 [76] (chapter 24) receives Royal Assent
      • Explanatory Notes to Act [77]
      • Brief overview from Blackstone's guide to the anti-terrorism legislation (2002) [78]
    • 2001 November 12
      Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Bill 2001 introduced (Bill 49 of 2001-2002)
      • House of Commons debates on the Bill [79](November 19, 21, December 12)
      • House of Lords debates on the Bill [80](November 27-29, December 3-4, 6, 10-11, 13)
      • House of Commons Library Research Paper on the Bill [Published in several parts. See Paper numbers 92, 94, 96-99, 101] [81]
      • First report of the House of Commons Home Affairs Committee on the Bill, 15 November 2001 [82]
      • Second report of the Parliamentary Joint Committee on Human Rights on the Bill, 14 November 2001 [83]
      • Fifth report of the Parliamentary Joint Committee on Human Rights on the Bill, 3 December 2001 [84]

    • 2001 October 15
      Home Secretary David Blunkett outlines proposed new measures to strengthen current anti-terrorism legislation. House of Commons Hansard 15 October 2001, column 923 [85]
    • 2000 July 20
      Terrorism Act 2000, no. 11 [86], receives Royal Assent. Some of its provisions come into force immediately, while most take effect from 19 February 2001. The Act reforms and extends previous counter-terrorist legislation, and puts it largely on a permanent basis.
      • Explanatory Notes [87][ie plain English version]
      • House of Commons Library research paper on the Bill [88]
      • The Terrorism Act 2000 [89] (article by JJ Rowe from The Criminal Law Review, July 2001, pp 527-542) [Available within Parliament only]
      • Statistics on the Operation of Prevention of Terrorism Legislation, Great Britain 2000 [90]Series discontinued. Now contained in Arrests for Notifiable Offences and the Operation of Certain Powers under PACE [91] (Home Office Statistical Bulletins)
    • 1998 December
      Legislation against Terrorism: a consultation paper [92] presented to Parliament in December 1998 by the Home Secretary. (Command paper number: Cm 4178). Its recommendations lead to passing of the Terrorism Act 2000 (see above)

    • Home Office Terrorism website [93] (includes reviews of terrorism legislation)
    • List of banned terrorist organisations in the UK [94] (Home Office)

    Bill no. H.R. 3162 [95]; Public Law no: 107-56 [96]). The Homeland Security Act 2002 (Bill no. H.R. 5005 [97]; Public Law no: 107-296 [98]) creates a new Department of Homeland Security to oversee national security matters previously the responsibility of 22 separate agencies. Other versions of the Patriot Act and related legislation were also introduced. These may be found in the sites listed below.

    Legislative proposals
    • Legislation related to the attack of 11 September 2001 [99]
      A comprehensive listing from the Library of Congress with information about current status etc
    • List of banned terrorist organisations in the US [100]
    • Federation of American Scientists - America's War on Terrorism - Congressional Action
      [101]A summary of key legislative developments from a civil liberties angle, with links to debates and hearings in Congress
    • Electronic Frontier Foundation. "Censorship & Privacy - Terrorism Hysteria & Militia Fingerpointing" Archive
      [102]Detailed analysis from a civil liberties angle of legislative proposals
    • Electronic Privacy Information Centre. Counter terrorism proposals
      [103]Brief overview of major proposals since 1995 with analysis and texts of legislation
    • Homeland Security: 50 State analysis [104] (American Legislative Exchange Council)
      Summaries of legislation introduced at the State level after 11 September 2001
    • Center for Public Integrity [105]
      Background on the draft Domestic Security Enhancement Bill 2003 (aka PATRIOT II)
    • Analysis of the draft Domestic Security Enhancement Bill 2003 [106] (Alex Jones, Infowar.com)
    • Patriotically Erasing Civil Liberties [the PATRIOT II Bill] [107](Mike Fox)
    Other resources
    • US Department of Justice. DOJ Response to Terrorist Attacks [108]
      Statements ~ Legal documents ~ FBI Alerts ~ Press Releases ~ Civil Liberties ~ Fraud Schemes ~ Immigration Courts ~ Employee Information ~ Other Federal Sites
      • Dept of Justice special reports on the Patriot Act, alien detainees etc [109]
    • Preserving Life and Liberty [110] (Dept of Justice website on the PATRIOT Act)
    • Terrorism law and policy [111]
      Links to information on terrorism, counterterrorism, US and foreign legislation, civil liberties analysis, bioterrorism etc, compiled by JURIST, the legal education network
    • FINDLAW: Special Coverage: War on Terrorism [112]
      Links to government documents, legislation and cases and current news items. Very comprehensive
    Analysis of the new legislation
    • The USA PATRIOT Act: a legal analysis [113](C. Doyle, Congressional Research Service)
    • News reports on the effects of the PATRIOT Act [114]
    • Do new anti-terrorism proposals pass constitutional muster [115] (J. Rogel, T. Mauro)
    • Law and liberty: the impact of the new legislation on civil rights with four legal experts [116] (News Hour transcript, 26 October 2001)
    • Terrorism forum [117]
      FINDLAW's columnists analyse the new legislation and other legal issues
    • Internet resources on the PATRIOT Act [118] (Golden Gate University Law School Library)
    • Internet Surveillance Law After the USA Patriot Act: The Big Brother That Isn't [119] (O. Kerr, 69 pages)
    • Forfeiting "Enduring Freedom" for "Homeland Security": A Constitutional Analysis of the USA Patriot Act and the Justice Department's Anti-Terrorism Initiatives [120] (J. Whitehead, S. Aden, 53 pages)
    • Terror & the attack on civil liberties [121] (Ronald Dworkin. NY Review of Books, 6 November 2003)
    Military Tribunals
    • Terror tribunals [122]
      Analysis of the President's order of 13 November [123] allowing special military tribunals to try non-citizens suspected of terrorism by George Terwilliger, former deputy attorney general for the first Bush administration, and Laura Murphy, director of the Washington office of the American Civil Liberties Union (The News Hour, 14 November 2001)
    • Military Commission Instructions [124] (issued 2003)
    • Military tribunals, the Constitution and the Uniform Code of Military Justice [125] (D. Reznek)
    • Terrorism and the law of war: trying terrorists as war criminals before military commissions [126] (J. Elsea, Congressional Research Service)
    • Human Rights Watch [127] comments on military commissions
    • National Institute of Military Justice [128] documents on military commissions
    • Military commissions: some perhaps legal, but most unwise [129] (J. Paust)

    Counter-Terrorism Legislation and Practice: A Survey of Selected Countries [130] (UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office, 2005)
    Covers Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Norway, Spain, Sweden, USA
  • Law Library Resource Xchange (LLRX) 9-11-2001 News and Legal Resources, Information and Related Services: International Resources
    [131]Has links to developments around the world at a national level since 11 September 2001
  • Terrorism law and policy [132]
    Links to foreign legislation, compiled by JURIST, the US legal education network
  • Country reports to the UN Security Council Counter Terrorism Committee [133] re legislation etc passed to implement Council Resolution 1373 of 2001
  • Asia-Pacific Cross-Border Online Rights Network (ACORN) [134]
    Examines national security laws introduced after 11 September 2001 in the context of human rights
  • Pacific Islands Forum Declaration on Anti-terrorism strategy [135] (Nasonini Declaration on Regional Security, August 2002)
  • Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) leaders' APEC Counter Terrorism Task Force [136] (Los Cabos, Mexico, 27 October 2002)
  • Meeting of Commonwealth Law Ministers, Kingstown, St Vincent and the Grenadines, 18-21 November 2002. Communique on terrorism [137], [on pages 3-4]
  • Indonesia.
    • Presidential decrees [138] of 18 October 2002 on counter terrorism (In Indonesian). Analysis [139] of the new laws by Prof Tim Lindsey, University of Melbourne
    • Memorandum of Understanding between Australia and Indonesia on Combating International Terrorism [140] (February 2002)
  • Patterns of Global Terrorism [141](US Dept of State)
    Annual overview of terrorist incidents and organisations since 1995
  • Terrorism as a challenge for national and international law [142]
    Proceedings of a conference held at the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law, Heidelberg, 24-25 January 2003. Includes country reports on national terrorism laws and related documents
  • South Asia Terrorism Portal [143]
    Maintained by the Institute for Conflict Management, India, this site provides a wide range of documents, legislation and analysis for several south Asian countries.

    • War Against Terrorism links [144]. Compiled in Canada this site has hundreds of links to documents and information arranged into subject categories. Regularly updated. Documents and Civil Liberties categories are particularly useful
    • Commonwealth Parliamentary Library Internet resource guide to Biological Weapons [145] (Science, Technology, Environment and Resources Section)
    • LinkVoyager directory of terrorism research centres [146]
      Mainly US centres but very detailed with explanatory notes

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