Senator Brown says today is "a green letter day" that will "echo down through the ages".
"The great debate on this legislation is over," he said, vowing the legislation will never be rescinded despite threats by Opposition Leader Tony Abbott to do so.
"People 50 years, or 500 years, from now will thank us for doing this.
"This is a vote for Australian householders, economic planners and ecologically sound business, as well as the Great Barrier Reef, Ningaloo, the Murray-Darling Basin and 700,000 property owners on our coastal margins."
Environmental crusader former US vice-president Al Gore said on his website "the voice of the people of Australia has rung out loud and clear".
He praised the efforts of Ms Gillard in shepherding the legislation through, saying "as the world's leading coal exporter, there's no doubt that opposition to this legislation was fierce".
It was a hard-fought battle with casualties on both sides. The passing of the carbon tax bill today is a victory for future generations and for the planet. The money raised will be used to fund alternative energy and new industries for Australia. We can all stand proud today.
Tony Abbott may threaten to rescind the new law – not sure the average voter will be too keen when they realise his plan will mean cuts to their pension, or an increase in tax for all taxpayers including small business.
Julia Gillard has seen a small lift in the polls this week, as voters see that the fear campaign run by the liberal party is based on lies. Expect to see that trend increase.